Virginia Thornley, M.D., Neurologist, Epileptologist
January 26, 2019
The current model for depression is that it is a combination of genetic and environmental factors that come into play.
How traumatic events can change brain structures and function
It has been found that negative influences from childhood can affect the structures in the brain including the amygdala and hippocampus which may relate to mood disorders.
The interaction of genes with exposure to negative childhood experiences was shown to produce abnormal changes in the serotonin transporter and the FKBP5 gene. These play significant roles in the development of depression and other mood disorders (1).
In another study of 34 patients, it was found that those who had maltreatment during childhood had a change in autobiographical memory. There was reduced activation in areas controlling positive reactions and increased activation for negative responses. Children who suffered maltreatment were at risk of suffering from depression and post-traumatic stress disorder later on in life (2).
Childhood trauma might affect the stress axis as well as the inflammatory-immune system. The association may be related to a pharmacoresistent state with anti-depressants (1).
- Jaworska-Andryszewska, P., Rybakowski, J.K. Childhood trauma in mood disorders:neurobiological mechanisms and implications for treatment. Pharmacol Rep 2018 Oct. 11;71(1):112-120
- Mccrory, E.J., Puetz, V.B., Maguire, E.A., Mechelli, A., Palmer, A., Gerin, M.I., Kelly, P.A., Koutoufa, I., Viding, E. Autobiographical memory: a candidate latent vulnerability mechanism for psychiatric disorder following childhood maltreatment. Br. J. Psychiatry 2017, Oct. 211(4)216-222