fibromyalgia

Review of scientific literature: can diet alleviate symptoms from fibromyalgia

Virginia Thornley, M.D., Neurologist, Epileptologist
October 15, 2018
Introduction
There is growing interest in lifestyle changes in controlling certain diseases especially those that are related to inflammation. This seeks to review the scientific literature and determine if there is any science supporting any evidence for recommend dietary changes to alleviate symptoms from fibromyalgia.
Possible mechanisms underlying fibromyalgia
Fructose is a molecule that is not absorbed well in the gut and is related to low levels of tryptophan causing tryptophan to be absorbed less in the gut. Tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin or 5-HT which is found to be low in patients with fibromyalgia (1). Fructose is widely seen in the western diet present in honey and sweeteners known as high fructose corn syrup.
Fructose malabsorption in the gut may contribute towards increased fructose and interefere with tryptophan absorption (1).
Low fructose diet
In one case report a diet was devised where fructose was excluded so as to allow increased tryptophan availablility. The diet consisted of eggs, fish, clams, meat, celery, spinach, beets, dark chocolate, walnuts, carrots, potatoes, chard, grape seed oil, thyme, sage, carob powder, millet, green tea, small amount of almonds, coffee and rosemary. Sodas and processed food were deleted from the list. Legumes, cereal, wheat and fructan-containing vegetables and inulin containing vegetables were excluded. The diet is comprised of 25-27% proteins, 9-10% fiber, 31-36% carbohydrates and 30-32% fats. The patient’s previous diet consisted of the Mediterranean diet which has 50% carbohydrates (2). While fructose may be excluded in a diet, this may reduce the caloric intake which would be detrimental. Any diet that is developed should  not neglect the caloric intake.
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After 12 months, the patient was found to have less pain and could do aerobic exercises due to her pain-free state. There were some times she did not strictly adhere to the diet which resulted in a flare-up of the pain. It is also indicative that a modified diet is not curative short-term. This indicates that the results from the diet are not related to a placebo effect. More studies are needed. This study supports the growing interest of low levels of tryptophan, which is a precursor of 5-HT, as contributing towards the mechanisms causing pain in fibromyalgia (2).
 
Other factors that contribute towards fibromyalgia
Women seem to be more prone to symptoms of fibromyalgia. While the level of 5-HT is similar in men and women, women seem to synthesize 5-HT at a reduced rate compared to men (1).
Stress and anxiety leads to increase of glucocorticoids which may also interfere with 5-HT synthesis (1).
 
In summary
There is increasing biochemical information that fructose may contribute towards the pathophysiology involved in fibromyalgia. Growing interest is directed towards the use of certain diets to control the symptoms of fibromyalgia, however, large clinical human trials are needed.
While there is scientific biochemical information, large human trials are needed. There is not enough information to recommend this until large human clinical trials are performed.
References
1. Lattanzio, S.M. Fibromyalgia syndrome: a metabolic approach grounded in the biochemistry for the remission of symptoms Front. Med. 2017, Nov. 4:198
2. Lattanzio, S.M., Imbesi, F. Fibromyalgia syndrome: a case report on controlled remission of symptoms by a dietary strategy. Front med. 2018, 5:94
This is for informational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice, see your physician. Large human randomized controlled clinical trials are needed.
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Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy: chronic pain amelioration with cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabidiol

Virginia Thornley, Neurologist, Epileptologist

March 8, 2018

Introduction

Chronic pain from neurological conditions such as neuropathic pain can become refractory to conventional medications. Interest is directed towards novel ways of treatment such as cannabidiol and THC which are known in animal models to be anti-inflammatory, analgesic and neuroprotective. Cannabinoids are being used more commonly in patients who have failed medical treatments and remain a viable option in the treatment of pain. Many animal models point towards mechanistic evidence that cannabidiol and THC reduce severity and frequency of pain syndromes. Cannabidiol is non-intoxicating and is an alternative form of management. With THC, the level of pain relief is higher but with that comes a higher risk of side effects at greater doses.

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Cannabidiol and neuropathic pain in joints

Osteoarthritis involves inflammation, pain, and neuropathic pain. Cannabidiol was studied in rat models and its effect on pain from the joints and nerves. In end-stage osteoarthritis, cannabidiol reduced joint afferent pain. Transient joint inflammation was reduced using cannabidiol. CBD application used prophylactically demonstrated lack of development of pain and inflammation during later stages.

One study suggests that chronic neuropathic pain might be suppressed by cannabidiol through alpha 3 glycine receptors. In mice lacking these receptors, there is no cannabidiol analgesic effect. Cannabinoids are found to support glycine activity in the dorsal cell neurons in rats. This suggests that glycinergic cannabinoids may provide a potential therapeutic option in treating neuropathic pain. There is lack of psychoactive side effects or development of tolerance (1).

Cannabidiol and neuropathic pain studies

In one review of 15 randomized controlled trials against placebo with a total of 1619 patients, 13 studies consisting of 1565 patients reported a reduction of pain compared to placebo which was statistically significant. There was a frequency reduction in pain of 30%. 10 studies used nasal tetrahydrocannabinol /cannabidiol and 3 used synthetic cannabidiol while 2 used medical cannabis. They concluded that cannabidiols were marginally superior and had greater side effects than placebo. It is a treatment option for patients who have failed several lines of treatment. Some flaws that can be seen in this study is that with this study, some centers used synthetic forms of cannabinoids and others used a combination of THC and cannabidiol. Synthetic medical marijuana has a different quality compared to a product that is purely organic and made from natural materials. High doses of THC is known to cause side effects while with lower doses of THC pain relief may be obtained with fewer side effects. It is not clear how pure the products are which were being administered.

In one large study of 303 patients with peripheral neuropathy, 128 used CBD/THC spray and 118 randomized to placebo. End-point was a 30% responder rate using the PNP numerical scale 0-10. There was a substantially higher number of responders for CBD:THC but not statistically significant. Quality of life and sleep improved in those with CBD/THC nasal spray. They concluded that use of CBD/THC helped improve pain from peripheral neuropathy and there were no substantial adverse effects from the patients studied (3).

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References
  1. Xiong, et al, “Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting alpha 3 glycine receptors,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2012, Jun., 209(6):1121-1134.
  2. Petzke, et al, “Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabinoids for chronic neuropathic pain: a systemic review of randomized controlled studies,” Schmerz, 2016, Feb., 30(1):62-88
  3. Serpell, et al, “A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment,” European Journal of Pain, 2014, Aug., 18(7):999-1012.

 

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