medical marijuana

Cannabinoids and effects on other organ systems: cardiomyocytes and the gastrointestinal system

Virginia Thornley, M.D., Neurologist, Epileptologist

@VThornleyMD

May 8, 2018

Introduction

Cannabinoids are being more and more widely used in a variety of neurological conditions. This always leads to the questions of side effects and will it interacts with other medications? Because this is wholly unchartered territory,  in order to answer these questions, it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms.

Cannabinoids can cause tachycardia

Phytocannabinoids, when ingested, can induce tachycardia. The metabolism of cannabinoids by cardiomyocytes likely impacts the side effects elicited in cardiac cells. CYP2J2 is the most significant cytochrome p450 which metabolizes endocannabinoid anandamide (AE) into the cardioprotective epoxides. 6 phytocannabinoids were studied in one paper including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabigerol, and cannabichromene. These were found to be metabolized more quickly compared to anandamide. The cannabinoids may potentially inhibit the metabolism of anandamide by CYPJ2 such that its effects are still circulating in the system. The most significant inhibition was from delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. It follows a non-competitive inhibition model such that the cardioprotective epoxides are not formed as abundantly as they should by the cytochrome p450 CYP2J2 (1).

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The cytochrome P450 system has a significant impact on the metabolism of cannabinoids. Tetrahydrocannabinol is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. cannabinol is metabolized by CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. Synthetic cannabinoids include JWH-018 which is metabolized by CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 and AMC2201 which is metabolized by CYP1A2 and CYP2C9.

The cytochrome P450 enzymes are also thought to be involved in the metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinol. CYP2C9 greatly influences the metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinol. Cytochrome P450 3A4 is important in the metabolism of THC and CBD (2).

Cannabinoids in relation to hyperemesis syndrome

Once abdominal pain has been explored regarding medical etiologies, and there is a presence of 1-year history of cannabis use usually weekly, this diagnosis comes to mind. It usually involves cyclical vomiting associated with nausea. The mechanism is thought to be related to dysregulation by the endocannabinoid pathway in relation to the gastrointestinal tract. The CB1 receptor by which THC or tetrahydrocannabinol exerts it actions is also present in the GI tract. Exogenous cannabinoids may dysregulate the normal endocannabinoid pathway thereby affecting the GI tract through the down-regulation of the normal CB1 receptors so that it is no longer sensitive to endocannabinoids which regulate the system. This results in a dysfunction of the GI tract clinically manifested as cyclical nausea and vomiting. A disruption of the cannabinoid receptors may occur resulting in slowed motility of the gut. Relief can occur with use of hot water which influences the TRPV receptor a G-related coupled protein

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References

  1. Arnold, et al, “Cross-talk of cannabinoid and endocannabinoid metabolism is mediated via human cardiac CYP2J2,” J. Inorganic. Biochem., 2018, Apr., 7(184):88-99 doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2018.03.016. (Epub ahead of print)
  2. Stout, et al, “Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: a systematic review,” Drug Metab. Rev., 2014, Feb., 46(10:86-95.
  3. Lapoint, et al, “Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: public health implications and a novel model treatment guideline,” West J Emerg Med, 2018, Mar., 19(2):380-386.

 

 

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schizophrenia

Cannabidiol may treat psychosis while tetrahydrocannabinol can induce schizophrenia in those susceptible  

Virginia Thornley, M.D., Neurologist, Epileptologist

@VThornleyMD

May 6, 2018

Introduction

There is a well-known correlation of use of cannabis whether it is medical or recreational to the onset of schizophrenia. It unclear if this could be to a direct correlation and disinhibition of the genetic component or the behavior of using it is a prodrome leading up to schizophrenia. This review seeks to elucidate the mechanisms in the correlation of the use of cannabis and onset of schizophrenia.

Mechanisms related to the underlying genetic composition

Schizophrenia may be linked when some of the normal pathways become disrupted with an introduction of THC.  There are 4 genes that were described after a lifetime use of cannabis including KCNT2 which were THC responsive, NCAM1 and CADM2 are significant in functioning in post-synapse. With THC in the system, there are more post-synaptic density genes (1).

Mechanisms related to other neurotransmitter pathways influenced by cannabinoids

In one study, because of the alarming rate of potent synthetic cannabis used recreationally which was found to leave long-lasting schizophrenia disorder in recreational users, this has accelerated research into the pathophysiology. Because cannabinoids work on the CB1 receptor, it is likely that it plays a modulatory role on the other neurotransmitters that can give rise to schizophrenia including dopaminergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic pathways. These pathways are well-established as playing a role in a pro-psychotic state. High efficacy synthetic cannabinoids which are manufactured for recreational purposes are highly more potent compared to natural organic cannabinoids and there is an alarming increase in the correlation of schizophrenia in these users (2).

In one study it is thought to be due to the hypofunctioning of the glutamate system which is directly affected by THC. Exposure to tetrahydrocannabinol appears to reduce the activity at the level of the glutamate receptor as well as deregulate genes for synaptic function(1).

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Susceptibility is related to the development of schizophrenia

In one animal model, the set-up tried to mimic a more real state seen where not all adolescents exposed to synthetic cannabinoids react by developing schizophrenia, there are some studies where all animals develop schizophrenia with exposure. In this animal model, they provided a model that resembles the human model more closely and found that exposure to synthetic cannabinoids in schizophrenia-prone animals caused hyperfunctioning of dopaminergic pathways compared to the control group who were not susceptible at the same dosages. There may be underlying genetic or environmental factors that cause certain individuals to become more prone (2).

THC can cause anxiety and behavioral disorders but can be prevented with CBD

In one animal study, it was found in a rat study that THC can induce anxiety and behavioral disorders. With THC  administration object recognition was impaired in adolescent rates. The studies support effect on the developing brain in relation to cognitive impairment in the animal model. In addition, when rats were exposed to THC there was increased marble burying behavior which in scientific research is thought to signify anxiety or obsessive-compulsive type behavior usually ameliorated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors or benzodiazepines(4).

It was found, however, that a combination of CBD and THC or cannabidiol alone was administered, these behaviors were not produced or produced only minimally. The thought is that CBD is an allosteric competitive inhibitor at the CB1 receptor so that one sees less of the toxic undesirable effects of THC if administered alone (4).

Cannabinoids have a similar profile to atypical anti-psychotics and may be a possible adjunctive treatment in the treatment of psychotic events (5).

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In summary

There is historical evidence that exposure to THC can give rise to schizophrenia in those individuals that are susceptible accounting for the fact that it does not happen to everybody exposed to it. This is related to its influence on serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamate pathways. THC can induce anxiety, repetitive behaviors which are ameliorated by CBD. CBD may be a useful adjunctive treatment for psychotic disorders. However, the elucidated mechanisms are based on scientific research based on animal models which may not translate into humans.

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References

  1. Guennewig, et al, “THC exposure of human iPSC neurons impacts genes associated with neuropsychiatric disorder,” Transl. Psychiatry, 2018, Apr., 8(1):89.
  2. Fantegrossi, et al, “Pro-psychotic effects of synthetic cannabinoids: interactions with central dopamine, serotonin and glutamate systems, Drug Metab. Review, 2018, Jan, 50(1)
  3. Aguilar, et al, “Adolescent synthetic cannabinoid exposure produces enduring changes in dopamine neuron activity in the rodent model of schizophrenia,” Int. J. Neurpsychopharmacol., 2018, Apr., 31 (4):393-403.
  4. Murphy, et al, “Chronic adolescent delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment of male mice leads to long-term cognitive behavioral dysfunction which is prevented by concurrent cannabidiol treatment,” Cannabis Cannabinoid Res., 2017, 2(1):235-246.
  5. Deiana, et al, “Medical use of cannabis: a new light for schizophrenia?” Drug Test Analysis, 2013, Jan., (5)1:46-51
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autism

Medical marijuana: effects on pediatric patients with autism and the developing brain

Virginia Thornley, M.D., Neurologist, Epileptologist

@VThornleyMD

May 6, 2018

Introduction

Medical cannabis is being more and more commonly used in medical conditions specifically neurological. The CB1 receptor is found predominantly within the nervous system and in a few other organs on a lesser basis. The CB2 receptor is mainly in the immune system and found in other organs to a lesser extent.

Recent arguments have arisen promoting medical cannabis in children particularly in those with autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  It has already been well-established in patients with epilepsy. However, the effects on the developing brains of children have not yet been well-documented as it is not yet widely used or studied in the pediatric population. There are many animal models but this does not always correspond to translate into similar human findings.

Effect in autism in animal models and clinical studies

A current topic of debate is not only using THC in pediatric patients but those with autism. Autism is part of the pervasive developmental disorder consisting of social inhibition and isolation including poor eye contact, delayed language skills, aggressive behavior and may be characterized as having stereotypies such as flapping of the arms. Self-injury, eating and sleep disorders may occur. The etiology may be related to genetic, neurobiochemical or environmental and the exact cause is unclear.

In one animal model study, mice with induced Dravet syndrome-like symptoms was noted to improve in autistic-like social interactions with the addition of low dose cannabidiol (2) of 10mg/kg. At low doses, the DS mice interacted more with stranger mice. At higher doses, this was not noted. Dravet syndrome is a type of epileptic syndrome affecting the SCN1A gene causing medically refractory seizures combined with autism.  However, this was an animal model. Scientific studies do not necessarily translate into positive human clinical results.

There was one case report of a six-year-old boy with early autism. Dronabinol  (delta-9-THC) was administered at 3.62mg a day and followed for 6 months. Using the ABC scale (aberrant behavior checklist), the patient improved in terms of stereotypies which were less, lethargy was reduced, hyperactivity improved, and inappropriate speech improved (4).

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Endocannabinoid system and mechanisms in relation to autism

There are several lines of thinking regarding the role of the endocannabinoid and autism. It is thought that the endocannabinoid system plays a role in neurological development, but can also be modulated by outside cannabinoids. Another line of thinking is that autism spectrum disorders may be related to disrupted pathways that have been affected by the endocannabinoid pathway (5). In one animal study, it was found that the oxytocin peptide may be responsible for disrupting normal signaling pathways giving rise to autism spectrum disorders. Oxytocin appears to be crucial in mediating social reward which is impaired in autistic patients. Anandamide seems to play a role in the signaling pathways for oxytocin which is responsible for the social reward.   Social reward is aberrant in those with autism and this pathway thought to play a key role in causing its pathogenesis. By increasing anandamide at the CB1 receptor, ASD and social impairment is improved (5).

Effect on a fetus

Tetrahydrocannabinol is lipophilic and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It can get stored in the fatty stores which are likely the reason it may have a long-lasting effect.  Cannabinoids have been found to cross the placenta and affect the fetus. It may result in hyperactivity and impulsivity in babies with cannabinoid exposure in utero.

 

Effect on early cerebral development

It was found that in adolescents who used cannabis, there is a reduction in the IQ by the age of 38. It was found that cannabinoid receptors influence axonal migrations as well as subcortical projections within the cerebrum. This affects synaptic connections during childhood and adolescence(3).

The adolescent brain is still not fully matured and likely still subject to neuronal plasticity and changes. It may be affected by substances. One study showed that the frontal lobe is vulnerable to cannabis in adolescents who used it heavily and that cannabis use may impact working memory. (1)

 

 

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During adolescence, when cannabis is initiated it may affect the neuronal circuitry developing in the immature brain. The richest regions in the brain with cannabinoid receptors are the prefrontal cortex, medial temporal lobes, striatum, white matter connections, and cerebellum. When cannabis is introduced during this neurocritically important time of development, these regions can become dysfunctional although some functional studies have shown altered, weakened, strengthened or combination of changes (6).

Some of the most common adverse effects

At high doses in chronic users, it was found to induce anxiety, panic attacks. It can increase blood pressure. However, clinically, it may control seizures

 

In summary

There is a small body of evidence from a scientific standpoint that cannabis may work to help alleviate autism-like symptoms based on the animal models. There is a not enough evidence from a clinical evidence standpoint in human studies to support its use in pediatric patients, with one case report that it helped with impulsivity, reduced lethargy, and inattention. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed.

Research has found that cannabinoids may help oxytocin and disrupted signaling pathways that play a role in social reward which is impaired in autism. At present, there is evidence that cannabis may affect neurocognitive development but these are studies in pregnant mothers who used it heavily recreationally and adolescents who used it heavily. It is unclear if there may be a similar impact when used in the pediatric population at a medical dosage and administration as there are not enough studies to expound on this.

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Reference

  1. Jager, et al, “Cannabis use and memory brain function in adolescent boys: a cross-sectional multicenter fMRI study,” J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2010, Jun., 49(6):561-572.
  2. Kaplan, et al, “Cannabidiol attenuates seizures and social deficits in a mouse model in Dravet syndrome,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 2017, Oct.. 114 (42):11229-11234.
  3. Scott, et al, “Medical marijuana: a review of the science and implications for developmental-behavioral pediatric practice,” J. Dev. Behav. Ped., 2016, Feb., 36 (2):115-123.
  4. Kurz, et al, “Use of dronabinol  (delta-9-THC) in autism: a prospective single-case study with early infantile autistic child,” Cannabinoids, 2010, 5 (4):4-6.
  5. Wei, et al, “Enhancement of anandamide-mediated endocannabinoid signaling corrects autism-related social impairment,” Cannabis Cannabinoid Research, 2016, 1(1):81-89
  6. Kelly, et al, “Distinct effects of childhood ADHD and cannabis use on brain functional architecture in young adults, Neuroimage Clin., 2017, 13:188-200.

 

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medical marijuana

A review of mechanisms in medical marijuana: the endocannabinoid pathway, receptors, tetrahydrocannabinol, and cannabidiol 

Virginia Thornley, M.D., Neurologist, Epileptologist

@VThornleyMD

April 28, 2018

Introduction

The Cannabis sativa plant has been known since the beginning of time. It can be traced back 5000 years ago when it was first known to man to alleviate common complaints. It came into the American pharmacopeia in the 19th century then abolished in the 1930’s, likely not coincidentally as the era of prohibition was lifted. It is known to treat ailments such as chronic pain and migraine. In the middle ages, it was used to treat headaches, vomiting, diarrhea, bacterial infections and pain from rheumatological conditions. It was previously known for its psychoactive properties.  It is recently making a resurgence in popularity regarding its medical value. The issue is a topic of hot debate as state laws are at odds with federal laws. Currently, as of April 2018, it is still recognized as a category 1 drug, meaning it is not officially proclaimed to have any medical value despite the long rich history of treating medical symptoms. It is lumped in with other drugs of abuse such as heroin and cocaine.

Background on the Cannabis sativa plant and their metabolites

The Cannabis sativa plant is abundantly rich in phytocannabinoids, the most commonly known and used for its therapeutic value are cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol. The endocannabinoid pathway is comprised of receptors that are coupled with G proteins and cannabinoids (1). In the Cannabis sativa plant, there are 80 phytocannabinoids that can bind to a cannabinoid receptor.

There are 8 major cannabinoids including cannabigerolic acid, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabolinic acid A, cannabidiolic acid A, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabigerol, cannabidiol, cannabichromene, and tetrahydrocannabivarin in the different strains of Cannabis sativa (1).

Ehlsoly, et al, classified it into 11 categories: cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabidiol, ∆9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol, ∆8-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabicyclol, cannabielsoin, cannabinol, cannabinodiol, cannabitriol, and miscellaneous. ∆9 -trans-tetrahydrocannabinol , cannabinol, and cannabidiol are the most well-studied and well-known.

Cannabidiol is extracted from the hemp portion of the plant considered a male part of the plant, there are no psychoactive properties in cannabidiol. Psychoactivity is defined as anything above 0.3% of THC. Tetrahydrocannabinol is derived from the female portion of the plant, particularly the flowers. Conditions are such that in nurseries only a certain amount of sunlight is given to the plants so that specific strains can be grown. Some plants will be richer in cannabidiol, others will be more THC pure and other swill have an equal amount of CBD and THC but it depends on how the plants are grown and under what conditions.

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Endocannabinoid pathway

It is through the endocannabinoid pathway that one gets the sense of well being after exercise or eating chocolate. It is not through endorphins, serotonin or noradrenergic neurotransmitters as they are too large to cross the blood-brain barrier. Tetrahydrocannabinol acts as a mimetic of Anandamide while cannabidiol acts as a mimetic of 2-Arachidinoylglyerol (or 2-AG). The endocannabinoid system works through cannabinoids, the receptors, transporters, and enzymes.

Receptors

The phytocannabinoids work on cannabinoid receptors. The endocannabinoid system is mediated by 3 parts: the cannabinoids, the cannabinoid receptors, and the enzymes. The receptors are of 2 types, CB1 which is found primarily in the nervous system especially in the areas that subserve pain modulation, memory and movement. The CB2 receptor is more peripherally found specifically in the immune system. The CB2 receptor is found to a lesser extent in other organs including tissues of reproduction, pituitary, heart, lungs, adrenal and gastrointestinal systems.  Cannabinoids also react with the TRPV receptor or the transient receptor cation channel subfamily V. They can also act on G receptors including GPR55 thought to be significant in controlling seizures. Other receptors include GPR12, GPR18, and GPR119 (2).

Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol and their effect on receptors

THC and CBD are the most well-known and well-studied. THC has psychoactive properties and works as a partial agonist on the CB1 receptor and the CB2 receptor. Cannabidiol which has no psychoactive properties works as an antagonist on CB1/CB2 receptor and an agonist on the CB1 and CB2 receptor. Rather than decreasing the effects of THC, it works in a synergistic manner in combination with THC. It potentiates the THC effects by increasing the CB1 densities. CBD increases vanilloid pain receptors, reduces metabolism and reduces re-uptake of anandamide, THC’s mimetic component. Other studies suggest CBD acts as an indirect agonist by interacting with the CB1 receptor so there are less psychoactive symptoms from THC when the two are combined.

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Pharmacokinetics of tetrahydrocannabinol

Regardless of the way of taking it, the protein binding and the and volume of distribution are not affected by the route of taking it. Pharmacokinetics of creams and vaporizers are unclear. Smoking THC appears to exert an effect within minutes of intake and bioavailability is variable depending upon the extent of inhalation ranging between 2-69%. The effect is within minutes. Half-life increases with each inhalation at 2 puffs inhaled for THC it is 1.9 hours and 5.3 hours in CBD at 8 inhalations it is 5.2 hours in THC and 9.4 hours in CBD at a dosage of 5.4mgTHC/5.0mg CBD and 21.5mg THC/20 mg CBD respectively.

Oral routes may seem to be safer but have more adverse effects including GI symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Oral mucosal absorption is rapid within 15 minutes to 60 minutes. Oral tablets are lower in the rate of absorption at about 0.6 to 2.5 hours. The rate of elimination, when taken orally, is biphasic, initially occurring at 4 hours then 24-38 hours after ingestion.

In summary

There is much research ongoing on the mechanisms underlying the medical value of medical marijuana. It is now thought that cannabigerolic acid may have medicinal properties as well. So far, the most well-known and well studied are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Most likely as research continues, greater value will likely be attributed towards the phytocannabinoids.

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About

References

  1. Wang, et al, “Quantitative Determination of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBG, CBD, their acid precursors and five other neutral cannabinoids by UHPLC-UV-MS,” Planta. Med, 2019, mar., 84 (4):260-266.
  2.  Landa, et al, “Medical cannabis in the treatment of cancer pain and spastic conditions and options of drug delivery in clinical practice,”Biomed. Pap. Med. Fac. Univ. Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub., 2018, Mar; 162(1):18-25.
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Epilepsy

Vagal nerve stimulation device: its role in medically refractory partial epilepsy and reports of weight loss

 

Virginia Thornley, Neurologist, Epileptologist

@VThornleyMD

April 15, 2018

Introduction

The vagal nerve stimulation device is an implanted device that exerts its effort by pulses of electrical activity that stimulates the vagal nerve or cranial nerve X. It had initially been found to work in animal studies in the 1990’s then later applied in clinical studies.

Mechanism of action 

For years, the mechanism was unknown and was used rather effectively in the clinical realm. The elucidated mechanisms were thought to be that the vagal nerve stimulator modifies the highly synchronized electrical activity that occurs in epilepsy through desynchronization via the vagal nerve. In addition, there is increased regional cerebral perfusion, and there is increased GABA neurotransmitters which are inhibitory towards electrical activity causing seizures and a decrease in glutamate which is known to increase excitation with the brain. There are GABA-A receptor increases, an increase in locus ceruleus produced noradrenergic substances which are released through the vagal nerve and an increase in serotonin transmissions through the raphe nucleus.

Role in controlling seizures

In the original open-label trial in 5 clinical trials, the vagal nerve stimulation device was found to be effective in reducing seizures by 50%. 454 patients had the implanted device and clinical information was obtained from 440. A cardiac stimulation device was implanted along with a coil in the ipsilateral vagal nerve. At 1 year of implantation, more than 50% of reduction of seizures occurred in 36.8% of patients at year 1, 43.2% year 2, and 42.7% at year 3.  The most common side effect at year 2 was hoarseness of about 9.8% and headache in 4.5% and at 3 years there was shortness of breath in 3% (4).

In one retrospective study from 1997 to 2008, 436 patients were found with implanted vagal nerve stimulation devices from ages 1-76, 220 were women and 216 were men. 33 had poor follow-up and 3 had removal due to infection. The mean frequency of seizures was better at 50% reduction.  There was 90% better control on 90 patients, >75% control in 162 patients and 50% control in 255 patients, <50% control in 145 patients. Permanent damage to the vagal nerve happened in 2.8% or 11 patients out of the 400 patients (after the removal of the ones lost to follow-up and infected) (5).

Long-term value of vagal nerve stimulating device, effectiveness after 5 years

There have been many studies reported that it may be effective short-term. But there was one pediatric study that reported success in seizure control in longer than 5 years. In a study of 56 pediatric patients ages 4-17, >9.8% were seizure free after 9 months, 24% after 2 years, 46.4% after 3 years and 54% after 5 years.11 out of the 56 patients became seizure free. After 5 years 62% of the patients had fewer seizures after 5 years.

What happens from diagnosis to implantation to use

A patient is identified as medically refractory, meaning a patient who has already failed 2 or more agents. Once control is failed after 2 anti-epileptic drugs after an adequate dosage and trial,  the likelihood of being seizure free becomes significantly less.  It is usually applied to patients with partial seizures, the most common being temporal lobe epilepsy. After appropriate identification is done, the patient undergoes a procedure where a cardiac device is implanted under the skin which generates an electrical impulse. A wire or coil is attached to the vagal nerve which reacts to this signal and emits an electrical pulse which inhibits the seizure which is electrical activity in the brain by disrupting this through various mechanisms. The device can be programmed to have a set frequency, amount of power and can be set to automatic with features where the patient can apply a magnet to inhibit the seizure when it is about to occur. The magnet is typically swiped over the cardiac device which was implanted over the left side of the chest. The settings can be changed in the doctor’s office adjusting according to the number and frequency of seizures.

Common side effects

Some of the most common side effects reported include hoarseness, cough, throat irritation, dyspnea, insomnia, dyspepsia, and vomiting. The symptoms are related to the location of the device near the nerve causing local irritation and likely due to the functions subserved by the vagal nerve.

Incidental weight loss effect

Vagal nerve stimulation device was applied to treatment-resistant patients with depression where an incidental effect on weight loss was found. One study in 33 patients showed that the vagal nerve stimulator implanted in patients seemed to alter cravings for sweet food which may play a part in weight loss (2). There have been some conflicting studies proving that there is no weight loss in vagal nerve stimulating device at the settings recommended in epilepsy in 21 patients (3). In a large study of 503 patients from 15 study centers, vagal nerve blockade was applied intrabdominally. 294 patients were randomized to treated (192) and to control groups (102). Therapy involved electrical stimulation through an external power source to the vagal nerves in the subdiaphragm which inhibits afferent and efferent vagal transmission. At 12 months, the excess weight loss in the treated group was 17% and in the control group, it was 16%. There was no statistic difference between the two groups, however, the post-study analysis demonstrated a possible result in weight loss related to the system check of the devices using low charges which may have caused weight loss in the control group (6).

In conclusion

There is strong evidence that the vagal nerve stimulation device is effective at reducing seizures of >50% of the medication-resistant epilepsy patient. It is effective even after 5 years of implantation. There are very little side effects which are mild to moderate. In addition, it can cause weight loss.

References:

  1. Serdaroglu, et al, “Long-term effect of vagus nerve stimulation in pediatric intractable epilepsy: an extended follow-up,” Child’s Nervous System, 2016, 32 (4):641-646.
  2. Bodenlos, “Vagus nerve stimulation acutely alters food craving in adults with depression,” Appetite, 2007, 48: 145-153.
  3. Koren, et al, “Vagus nerve stimulation does not lead to significant changes in body weight in patients with epilepsy,” Epilepsy Behav. 2006;8:246–249.
  4. Morris, et al, “Long-term treatment with vagus nerve stimulation with refractory epilepsy,” Neurology, 1999, 53 (8):1731-1735.
  5. Elliot, et al, “Vagus nerve stimulation in 436 consecutive patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: long-term outcomes and predictors of response,” Epilepsy Behavior, 2011, Jan., 20(1):57-83.
  6. Sarr, et al, “The EMPOWER study:randomized, prospective, double-blind, multicenter trial of vagal blockade to induce weight loss in morbid obesity,” Obes. Surg., 2012, Nov., 22 (11):1771-82.

 

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